All weighted scores displayed here are based on the calculation of program-specific formula, of which certain subjects will be given heavier weighting than the others. 5Mb) Calculate a bowling game. Z-scores, T scores, and scaled scores express the same thing that standard scores do, but do so based on a different numerical system with different means and standard deviation units as shown above. The formula for calculating the standard score is given below:. Cpk = (USL. Altman single handily created an empire based on his original 1968 book/research on predicting corporate bankruptcy. Top 15% high $$ customers (z-score of the dollar_amt variable greater than +1) 2. However, on another day, the conversion from raw to scaled score may be more lenient, and a raw score of 39 in Science may be a perfect 36 scaled Science score. Champion HR et al, "A Revision of the Trauma Score", J Trauma 29:623-629,1989 Champion HR et al, "Trauma Score", Crit Care Med 9:672-676,1981. Let x be any number on our bell curve with mean, denoted by mu, and standard deviation denoted by sigma. Your bone density test result also includes a Z-score that compares your bone density to what is normal in someone your age and body size. Z Score Table- chart value corresponds to area below z score. The Z-Score Calculator uses the following formula: z = (x - μ) / σ. The normal for Z-score. The step-by-step z-score calculator calculates a z-score based on the z-score formula. The sign of the score indicates whether it is above (positive) or below (negative) the mean, and the value quantifies how many standard deviations the score is from the mean. In our example, the second column is named 'zgrades' to tell you that it contains all of the Z-scores for the grades column. 13%but I still have the 2. Each z-score corresponds to a point in a normal distribution. Very high or very low (negative) z-scores, associated with very small p-values, are found in the tails of the normal distribution. An accurate estimate of 10-year CHD risk can be obtained using traditional risk factors and CAC. Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) calculator for the classification of the severity of cirrhosis, from the VA National Hepatitis C website. 159 and a person scoring 75 would have a percentile rank score of 15. The Gleason score usually ranges from 6 to 10. If None, compute over the. In order to find the area between those two z-scores, we must first look up each z-score in the Z table (click to open). The z-score is found by taking the mean and the value you are using which is 300,000. I'd like to know if there's a way to calculate z-score adjusted for age in SPSS. This online calculator calculates z score from p value. A common statistical way of standardising data on one scale so a comparison can take place is using a z-score. The z-score, also known as standard score, is a measurement used in statistics. Streaks are defined by the times a system shifts between losing or winning trades. A person with percentile 50 therefore shows an average result. If you choose to work with t statistics, you may need to transform your raw data into a t statistic. A negative z-score indicates that the data point is less than the mean, and a positive z-score indicates the data point in question is larger than the mean. Cp and Cpk Process Capability Metrics; Pp and Ppk Process Performance Metrics. Thank you for your insights and discussions on the Altman z-score topic. Z-Test Calculator for Single Sample. , the Z-Score says bankruptcy is likely when in fact it is not) occurs approximately 10 – 20% of the time. That is, there is probability r between the points –zr and +zr. Certain factors can put you at risk of breaking a bone. 05 4 Using the calculator set for non-manufacturing companies produced an even worse Z-score than the original model did. Z Score Transform Menu location: Data_Transforming and Deriving_Common Transforms_Z scores. ACT Score Calculator The curves of over 35 released ACT exams (from The Red Book, Q&A Service, and yearly booklets) have been thoroughly analyzed to bring you the most accurate prediction of your scores. This way you're not just looking for the cheapest stocks in your region, but the best bargains globally! Hover over the map on the right to see how many stocks we cover by country. For example, on the height-for-age distribution for a 36-month-old boy, the distance from a Z-score of -2 to a Z-score of -1 is 3. It is the measurement of the number of standard deviations a specific number is above or below a mean. The values presented in the graphs above are approximations derived from the work of Abramowitz & Stegun. I don't think that's it, but maybe I'm missing something. And credit score is just one of them, albeit a very important one. The formula for calculating the standard score is given below:. use the following search parameters to narrow your results: subreddit:subreddit find submissions in "subreddit" author:username find submissions by "username" site:example. Suppose you wished to know what grade on a curved test would get you a B or an A. 18 and bring that into your FRAX calculator tool. Scores indicate the amount one's bone mineral density varies from the mean. From the stated hypothesis, we know that we are dealing with a 1-tailed hypothesis test. 05, for the 5% significance level. Single Sample T-Test Calculator. In addition it provide a graph of the curve with shaded and filled area. Enter required numbers for the population mean and the standard deviation and hit Calculate. is 10, and for a deviation IQ is 15. I was just doing a z-score for a beer manufacturer in a frontier market and the following were the findings 1. I got a 186 so I am pretty happy with that. score distribution. Very high or very low (negative) z-scores, associated with very small p-values, are found in the tails of the normal distribution. The higher your credit score, the higher the maximum DTI ratio you will be able to have. σ is the population standard deviation and; μ is the population mean. View the step-by-step solution to: ince we utilize the TI calculator and don't need to convert to z-scores to calculate normal probabilities, why would we ever want to know the z-score?. Enter the three values, then you will get an answer and step-by-step explanation on how you can convert a z-score to a raw score yourself. Step 3: find the Z score. The way T-score calculated is if you are below the average score, you have less than 50 for that subject. If your score is less than 50, it is below average. On an intelligence test with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15, Jamie scored 85. 5 and Z score -1. The table below page gives the proportion of the scores below various values of z; z is computed with the formula: where z is the number of standard deviations (σ) X is above the mean (μ). To find the z score for 0. org 2 an adjusted raw score to account for differences in the lengths of different tests. Second, they are uncomfortable with a z-score of 0 being average. Just don't forget, if relevant, to take into account the two-sided characteristic of the test, it would be then: pvalue2sided=2*pnorm(-abs(z)) And, if you think you need to use the "apply" function, you might need to think about multitesting correction but, I agree, this. - A Standard Score is a score that belongs to a normal distribution, also known as Gaussian distribution. Show your calculations. Points to note: 1. The T-score can predict fracture risk better than the Z-score. We have spent some time going through the concepts of hypothesis testing. The Altman Z-Score kinda reminds me of the CAPM: the CAPM has been shown to not be very effective, and yet, everyone still uses it? Nonetheless, Prof. In that case, you calculated the z-score corresponding to some value of X as follows: X X X X z µ µ σσ − − == (1. zscore¶ scipy. How are PSLE Aggregate Scores calculated? To understand how PSLE Aggregate Scores are calculated, we must first understand T-Score. Z-Score Formula. You subtract the value you have(300,000) by the mean(1,493,750) don't take my word on that value since I used my computer's calculator, then you divide the number you get by your standard deviation(can be calculated on calculator which I can't find). 00 15 30 15 130 100 V X P z. The z score transformation is especially useful when seeking to compare the relative standings of items from distributions with different means and/or different standard deviations. Knowing each of those individual scores, however, is not normally very informative. About the Fracture Risk Calculator. Data is from a prospective multicenter study in Japan, with 3,851 patients. To convert from r to Fisher's z', enter the value of r and click the "Convert" button or hit "enter" To convert from z' to r, enter the value of z' and click the "Convert" button or hit "enter". 1 School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Queensland. Use this Z Score calculator to calculate the z-value from the standardized random variable, sample mean and the sample standard deviation. As a general rule, a median score of 660 will likely get you into just about any loan product available, and some loans allow you to go as low as 600; but typically, the higher the score up to about 740, the better the loan terms. Use this graph to calculate z-scores and to see the corresponding probabilities. I need to know if there is a way to do this in SAS and how. Negative scores indicate lower bone density, and positive scores indicate higher. 1 above the mean in this situation. Scrabble Word Score Calculator. If, for example, a tool returns a z-score of +2. In statistics, a Z score is the number of standard deviations a data point appears on a standard distribution curve of the entire dataset. 3 has Z-score of +0. This means that these tables aren’t 100% accurate–they give you a general idea of what scaled score to expect with a certain raw score, but there are other adjustments that are made as well. If the credit crunch itself wasn't lesson enough. Z scores, or standard scores, indicate how many standard deviations an observation is above or below the mean. \[ z = \frac{X-\mu}{\sigma} \] This is exactly what this z score calculator with steps will do for you if you type the parameters in the form above. 25 Low Average 82 12 Low Average 81 10 Low Average 80 9 6 367 37 -1. Altman Z-Score: The Altman Z-score is the output of a credit-strength test that gauges a publicly traded manufacturing company's likelihood of bankruptcy. Detailed information about what a p-value is, how to interpret it, and the difference between one-sided and two-sided tests of significance. or they can always try to. Also called sigma, sigma level or standard score. respectively. It shows us that the score is equal to the mean, below the mean or above the mean. Since we are interested in the positive value, we conclude BUT, there is a MUCH EASIER way to find these values using StatCrunch… Example 1: Find the following z-scores:. This score is the sum of the counts of events of various classifications, each of which is assigned a relative importance (weight). The T-test is similar to the Z-test, but generally T-tests are most helpful with a smaller sample size (typically under 30) and when the standard deviation is unknown, whereas Z. PS: I'm 53, peri-menopausal, with extreme mal-absorption. Easy steps to calculate a t score in psychological testing using a z score conversion. VantageScore Checking your credit score is one of the first things borrowers are urged to do when shopping for a mortgage. An easy to use table for converting standard scores to T scores, scaled, scores, and percentiles, with interpretations. Within SPSS the. A MELD score is a number that ranges from 6 to 40, based on lab tests. For T score, 10and=50 Formula for converting z scores to T scores is: Tz So T101. Altman Z-Score+ is a mobile and web application to analyze corporate credit risk. The best cut-off point depends on the. How are PSLE Aggregate Scores calculated? To understand how PSLE Aggregate Scores are calculated, we must first understand T-Score. , JASE 2016 Gender-specific, BSA-adjusted z-scores of the proximal coronary arteries (LMCA, LAD, LCX, RCA). In fact the very point of z-scores is to remove any contribution from the mean or standard deviation. The table in the frame below shows the probabilities for the standard normal distribution. Top 15% high $$ customers (z-score of the dollar_amt variable greater than +1) 2. Confidence Interval: 99% 95% 90% Sample Size. Since the closest area to 0. Student Quincy has a z-score of +2. 0, when compared to other 80-year-old women, she could very well have a Z score of +1. statisticsdoc. The formula for calculating the standard score is given below:. My practice quiz says 0. I figured, "My Z scores shows that I have better bone density that most of the women my age. Or also, you may have a z-score and you want to compute the corresponding associated raw score, for which you can compute our raw score calculator. To find the z score for 0. 0! It's a pity that the Z score, which "compares apples to apples," gets so much less attention than the T score. Select "Normal" from the list of menu items. The T score measures how closely your bone density compares to that of an average 30-year-old of the same sex. The percent-correct score is easy to calculate and understand, and is often used in classroom. Unfortunately, there is no closed form solution for P, so it must be evaluated numerically. Doctors give trusted answers on uses, effects, side-effects, and cautions: Dr. A 52-year-old woman who just started menopause and has no other risk factors for osteoporosis. In another way, it also refers to the number of scores students attained on a test. Next, compute the z statistic:. 5 standard deviation to the right of the mean on a bell curve. QI Macros Histogram calculates several process capability analysis metrics. Z Score formula. Examine the table and note that a "Z" score of 0. The way T-score calculated is if you are below the average score, you have less than 50 for that subject. PDF | Bone mineral density (BMD) can be measured by a variety of techniques at several skeletal sites. For a sample, the formula for a z-score would be: z = X − X s. Then complete your FRAX calculator to get your score. This web page allows you to calculate the body mass index (BMI) of your patients between the ages of 2 and 20 years, as well as the exact BMI percentile and z-score (standard deviation), based on the Center for Disease Control (CDC) growth charts. An easy to use table for converting standard scores to T scores, scaled, scores, and percentiles, with interpretations. ” The diagnosis was osteopenia, lowest T score –1. For a double-sided hypothesis we are always interested in the tail areas, that is the area to the right of the positive Z-score value, and to the left of the negative Z-score. The Boston Children's Hospital Z-Score Calculator allows for the calcuation of the standard score (z-score) of various regressions based on data gathered over the past 12 years on normal children. Z scores are especially informative when the distribution to which they refer is normal. To find a z-score for a specific result in a group of results: First, calculate the Mean for the group. Obtain the z-score and T-score for EACH student. If X is a vector, then Z is a vector of z -scores. Descriptions and formulas for these metrics are described below. The T-score can predict fracture risk better than the Z-score. To find the z score for 0. You place that in the box asking you for your T-score. Z scores, or standard scores, indicate how many standard deviations an observation is above or below the mean. A simple calculator that generates a P Value from a z score. Student Opie has a T-score of 60. or they can always try to. So if assuming that the school prelim is a good reflection of national performance (which is not the case most of the time), then from the average scores you can roughly tell whether the kid has a T-score of more or less than 200, the cutoff point for express/normal streams, even though. Why should I worry about the T score. Enter gender (male 1, female 2), height (cm), weight (kg), and coronary arterial diameter (mm) in a same row (patient ID is optional), then BSA and Z score values of their corresponding coronary arterial diameter are calculated automatically. In statistics, a Z score is the number of standard deviations a data point appears on a standard distribution curve of the entire dataset. The use of a calculator for this calculation is significantly valuable, since the use of charts takes a longer time compared to the use of a calculator. The calculated z-score [z-score = (value - mean)/SD] describes where a value is located in the distribution, e. Z-benchmark) A benchmark sigma (z-bench) score offers an fair comparison for products or processes. 96% of scores fall between 30 and 70. Standard z scores can be converted to T scores using the formula below. This raw score calculator will find a raw score given a z-score, mean, and standard deviation. 5Mb) Calculate a bowling game. By reading stackoverflow's comments, I found z-score maybe calculated with Python or perl, but I did not comes across any for R yet. Selecting two-sided provides the area above Z and below -Z. At young ages, the T-score and Z-score values will be similar. This calculator transform your score into a normal standard distribution, where the resulting score will belong to a distribution with mean of 0 and standard deviation of 1. In this tutorial, you will compare and contrast t-scores and z-scores, and learn how use z-scores to calculate the t-score. When you have raw scores from a sample or a population, you can compute a z-score for each raw score. 985 on the table, we find the z-score (for the left tail) to be -1. , the cumulative probability from minus infinity to the z-score). T and Z scores are based on the statistical unit of the standard deviation. Also, a Detection Theory calculator is available, as well as an normal curve range visualization tool. The z score, also called a standardized value, is a value a member of a (numeric) collection is above or below the mean. , the Z-Score says bankruptcy is likely when in fact it is not) occurs approximately 10 – 20% of the time. Would you take the prescribed medicine with these results. , a standard normal score), given an unstandardized raw value, the population mean, and the standard deviation of the population to which the unstandardized value belongs. As with all score normalizations, a z-score is uniquely associated with only T-score. We have spent some time going through the concepts of hypothesis testing. Also, make use of the example given below to understand the manual calculation steps. t to P Calculator This section will calculate the one-tail and two-tail probabilities of t for any given value of df. 0 or above is normal bone density. To make things. To better understand the relationship of such scores convert the reported score to a percentile rank. This means 89. Z Score Calculator. In educational assessment, T-score is a standard score Z shifted and scaled to have a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10. 2 So T = 35. Having a class called Scrabble with a word as a field is not good. For FRAX, the reference is a young white woman. This raw score calculator will find a raw score given a z-score, mean, and standard deviation. The T-test is similar to the Z-test, but generally T-tests are most helpful with a smaller sample size (typically under 30) and when the standard deviation is unknown, whereas Z. T and Z scores. Her primary care physician recommended a DXA study “to be on top of things. Because Z ST represents the number of short-term standard deviations between the variation center and the specification, the sigma (Z) score of the shifted distribution is. Once we have this we can use the equation X=μ + Zσ, because we already know that the mean and standard deviation are 29 and 6, respectively. You must also calculate the mean of all those values. When I began to research the history of dexa scans and Osteopenia and Osteoporosis fracture I realized that the T score was very important. To understand how PSLE Aggregate Scores are calculated, we must first understand T-Score. ACT Score Calculator The curves of over 35 released ACT exams (from The Red Book, Q&A Service, and yearly booklets) have been thoroughly analyzed to bring you the most accurate prediction of your scores. The way T-score calculated is if you are below the average score, you have less than 50 for that subject. Where: x = raw score value; µ = population mean; σ = population. 18 and bring that into your FRAX calculator tool. 0! It's a pity that the Z score, which "compares apples to apples," gets so much less attention than the T score. I am studying now t-scores. Statistics: Z-score, T-score, and 1 Proportion Z-score study guide by katiehorn123 includes 32 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. Explaining to a parent that her child did average on an achievement test and has a z-score of 0 can be difficult. 05 : 77th : 0. Explaining to a parent that her child did average on an achievement test and has a z-score of 0 can be difficult. The z score, also called a standardized value, is a value a member of a (numeric) collection is above or below the mean. In statistics, the standard score is the signed number of standard deviations by which the value of an observation or data point is above the mean value of what is being observed or measured. Don't be confused. The z score is the numerical value which represents how many standard deviations a score is above the mean. 9, for example, then the probability that it is just a chance occurrence is 18%. That is a T-score. ” But the VA doesn’t actually make home loans. This is then compared with the standard deviations of the average score for adults belonging to the same age group and sex, which is called the Z-score. Publisher: SteLer. we considered it appropriate to calculate the doses per body weight of each patient. If None, compute over the. Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test Calculator. You can use our z-score calculator to determine this value for you. A simple calculator that generates a P Value from a T score. Since this is a common need, someone has already done the coding for you; however, you may still need to install it. Standard Score Percentile Rank Scaled Score ETS Score T-Score Z-Score Description 89 23 Low Average 88 21 425 42 -0. How to use the calculator. The standard deviation unit for a Z score is 1, for a scaled score is 3, for a T score is 10, and for a deviation IQ is 15. You can use this T-Value Calculator to calculate the Student's t-value based on the significance level and the degrees of freedom in the standard deviation. By reading stackoverflow's comments, I found z-score maybe calculated with Python or perl, but I did not comes across any for R yet. Calculations are done with JS double-precision floats, I don't guarantee its accuracy past 7 standard deviations. The Z-score scale is linear and therefore a fixed interval of Z-scores has a fixed height difference in cm, or weight difference in kg, for all children of the same age. Data is from 782 patients evaluated at the Children's Hospital of Michigan. The normal distribution describes a theoretical distribution of values that follow a specific mathematical formula. Example: Find the z-score or z value of a normal variable whose value is 650 if its mean is 500 and standard deviation is 100. You could view this as a z-score. This should be self-explanatory, but just in case it's not: your T Score goes in the T Score box, you stick your degrees of freedom in the DF box (N - 1 for single sample and dependent pairs, (N 1 - 1) + (N 2 - 1) for independent samples), select your significance level and whether you're testing a. 562 (the Z score). Unlike a z-test which relates the value obtained to a single normal distribution, the t-test uses a family of t-distributions. Practically speaking, Ppk can be determined by dividing the Z score by three. Your CIBIL score is an important factor that lenders look at while evaluating a loan application. 95 as shown in Figure 6-9. The second column contains Z-scores. 33 Low Average 79 8 Borderline 78 7 350 35. The individual's score is known as the T-score and indicates the deviation in bone density below his own average at the peak density level. 16 • September 2011 www. This is then compared with the standard deviations of the average score for adults belonging to the same age group and sex, which is called the Z-score. An implementation of the Critical z-score Calculator occurs below. Like z-score, t-scores are also a conversion of individual scores into a standard form p-value is the probability that your null hypothesis will be rejected. Auto insurance score example. Having a class called Scrabble with a word as a field is not good. Question 2: A student wrote 2 quizzes. and then, ¨ What is the T score for scores of 250, 125, and 133? (Answers). A MELD score is a number that ranges from 6 to 40, based on lab tests. Enter a value, population mean and the standard deviation (for the population). Independent T-test. Show your calculations. A t score to percentile calculator consists of the calculation made to obtain the percentile, that is, the percentual score where a certain number is located, in this case the t score. T-Test Calculator for 2 Dependent Means. So we begin by going into the interior of the standard normal distribution table to find the area under the curve closest to 0. 13% above the mean for a percentile of 84. This simple calculator allows you to calculate a standardized z-score for any raw value of X. It may be on either side. How to use the calculator. A z-score in Excel can quickly be calculated using a basic formula. When the absolute value of the z-score is large and the probabilities are small (in the tails of the normal distribution), however, you are seeing something unusual and generally very interesting. The z score is the numerical value which represents how many standard deviations a score is above the mean. 5 means that your statistic is 1. Descriptions and formulas for these metrics are described below. 7% of the population" is a lot more meaningful than "I got a score of 130". Higher scores indicate a better result, lower scores a worse one. • The average for Z score is 0. Unfortunately, there is no closed form solution for P, so it must be evaluated numerically. Data is from 782 patients evaluated at the Children's Hospital of Michigan. Use this Z Score calculator to calculate the z-value from the standardized random variable, sample mean and the sample standard deviation. This app generates Z, Z', Z" scores; bond rating equivalent (BRE), Probability of Default (PD) 1-10 years into the future. Once we have this we can use the equation X=μ + Zσ, because we already know that the mean and standard deviation are 29 and 6, respectively. I think percentiles are not always accurate because not all administrations have the same range or mean if the actual score is supposed to be the same whichever test form you took. Calculate probability of a range using Z Score. To better understand the relationship of such scores convert the reported score to a percentile rank. From the mean and the standard deviation, you can calculate a sigma (Z) score. We stopped short. 25 Since a T-score is calculated in this example as: T= 50+10z T= 50 + 12. 0 or beyond is in the tails of the distribution. The exception is when weight is included to calculate. “standard distribution” of values about a mean of zero (0). Why should I worry about the T score. Percentile doesn't mean a lot, but I don't think it's because the tests are skewed. The z score compares your bone density with that of other people of your age, gender, and race. 34615 with a cumulative area to the left of 0. Cpk = (USL. Z-Score Formula To convert any bell curve into a standard bell curve , we use the above formula. Compute x, a raw score. 74 : 3rd -1. Don't give the opponent an easy double word or triple word score. In order to derive the z-score we need to use the following formula:. Z-scores values above the 0 represent that sample values are above the mean. To calculate a Z score, you need to know the mean (μ) and the standard deviation (σ) of your dataset. If, for example, a tool returns a z-score of +2. Body Mass Index (BMI) and Z-Score Calculation in Children. – Use the last “live” assessment for “target” statistical values. The Healthy Heart Score was created by a team from the Department of Nutrition at Harvard School of Public Health to fill this gap. The RTS Calculator will sit as a standalone window on your desktop. 5 will show that other. Single Sample T-Test Calculator. Calculate the t score for this candidate. Is this a typo? If not then how does that result correlate to the parameters for indicating entity health i. 61 : 52nd : 0. An extreme z‐score in either tail of the distribution (plus or minus) will lead to rejection of the null hypothesis of no difference. The standard deviation unit for a Z score is 1, for a scaled score is 3, for a T score. The t distribution calculator accepts two kinds of random variables as input: a t score or a sample mean. If your two-sided test has a z-score of 1. Confidence Interval: 99% 95% 90% Sample Size. A false positive (i. We looked up the Z Score for 2. Z-Score (Standard Score) The Z-Score, also known as a Standard Score, is a statistic that tells us where a score lies in relation to the population mean. In Part 1 of the series, we demonstrated how a regression-based normative (RBN) equation can be embedded in a spreadsheet to calculate an estimated IQ score. Note: If you already know the value of z, and want to calculate p, this calculator will do the job. • A Z-score expresses a particular score in terms of how many Standard Deviations it is away from the mean. Get a Z score for normally distributed data using this online calculator. Please enter the necessary parameter values, and then click 'Calculate'. The T-test is similar to the Z-test, but generally T-tests are most helpful with a smaller sample size (typically under 30) and when the standard deviation is unknown, whereas Z. Z-Score Formula To convert any bell curve into a standard bell curve , we use the above formula. The MESA risk score, which is available online on the MESA web site for easy use, can be used to aid clinicians in the communication of risk to patients and when determining risk-based treatment strategies. How to Connect Z-scores and T-scores. Use this Z Score calculator to calculate the z-value from the standardized random variable, sample mean and the sample standard deviation. The Z-score is a comparison of a person's bone density with that of an average person of the same age and sex. 5 and Z score -1. The Gleason score usually ranges from 6 to 10. You could view this as a z-score. For low-income borrowers with a 680 FICO score or higher will have an easier time becoming homeowners. You must also have the standard deviation. The best cut-off point depends on the. A score of 80, where the mean score of the sample data values is 30. The Healthy Heart Score was created by a team from the Department of Nutrition at Harvard School of Public Health to fill this gap. It shows us that the score is equal to the mean, below the mean or above the mean.